When optimizing your training performance, the rate of muscle protein turnover plays a key role in your results. When protein synthesis is equal to your protein breakdown, there is no net gain in muscle protein.
BetaTOR aids in increasing muscle protein by two mechanisms. BetaTOR decreases muscle protein breakdown through the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. BetaTOR also increases muscle protein synthesis through the mTOR pathway.
BetaTOR decreases muscle protein breakdown at a molecular level caused from intense training.
Rigorous exercise has been shown to increase muscle protein breakdown through the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway. BetaTOR decreases the key regulative components and activity of the ubiquitin-proteasome proteolytic pathway, which results in less muscle protein loss. In a recent clinical study, BetaTOR decreased protein breakdown in muscle by 57% (Wilkinson et al., 2013). While the exact mechanism of the effect on the ubiquitin pathway is not currently known, studies in both animal models and humans have shown the same effect, reduced protein breakdown, which helps maintain more muscle mass.
BetaTOR stimulates muscle protein synthesis through multiple mechanisms, including the mTOR pathway, which stimulates initiation of protein synthesis.
While the initiation of myofibrillar protein synthesis is influenced by a number of factors, mTOR is a key regulatory factor that results in a direct increase in myofibrillar protein synthesis. Myofibrillar proteins are the proteins in muscle that cause muscles to contract and are responsible for the strength of the muscle contraction. BetaTOR has been shown to increase the phosphorylation of mTOR, thus activating the mTOR signaling pathway in muscle. The mTOR then stimulates, or up-regulates, the initiation of protein synthesis in the muscle. Studies have shown that supplementing with BetaTOR increases protein synthesis up to 70% (Wilkinson et al., 2013), and results in a 12-week study show increases in lean mass of 250% greater than placebo and weight training alone (Wilson et al., 2014).